- 1 What is an object? (with examples)
- 2 Examples of Direct Objects
- 3 Examples of Indirect Objects
- 4 Examples of Objects of Prepositions
- 5 More about Objects
- 6 Why Should I Care about Objects?
- 7 (Reason 1) Don’t confuse“who“and“whom.“
- 8 (Reason 2) Use the correct verb after using an object of a preposition.
- 9 (Reason 3) Use“if“and“whether“correctly.
- 10 Key Points
What is an object? (with examples)
An object is a noun (or pronoun) that is governed by a verb or a preposition. There are three classes of objects:
- Direct Object (e.g., I know him.)
- Indirect Object (e.g., Give her the prize.)
- Object of a Preposition (e.g., Sit with them.)
Examples of Direct Objects
The direct object of a verb is the thing acted upon. You can find the direct object by finding the verb and asking“what?“o“who?“. In each example below, the verb is in bold and the direct object is shaded.
- Please pass the butter.
(Step 1: Find the verb. Verb = pass)
(Step 2: Ask“what?“. Q: Pass what? A: the butter)
- I don’t have a bank account because I don’t know my mother’s maiden name. (Comedienne Paula Poundstone)
(Step 1: Find the verbs. Verbs = don’t have and don’t know)
(Step 2: Ask“what?“for each verb. Q: Don’t have what? Don’t know what? A: a bank account and my mother’s maiden name.)
Direct objects can also be pronouns.
- Don’t eat me. I have a wife and kids! Eat them! (Homer Simpson)
(Step 1: Find the verbs. Verbs = don’t eat, have, and eat)
(Step 2: Ask“what?“for each verb. Q: Don’t eat whom? Have what? Eat whom? A: me, a wife and children, and them)
The verb could be a compound verb (eg, leave, surrender, recover).
My cat is recovering from a massive stroke. (Comedian Darren Walsh)
(Step 1: Find the verb. Verb = is recovering from)
(Step 2: Ask“what?“. Q: Is recovering from what? A: a massive stroke)
It can get complicated.
The cat wants to eat our goldfish.
(Step 1. Find the verb. Verb = wants)
(Step 2. Ask“what?“. Q: Wants what? A. to eat our goldfish)
(That seems easy enough, but note that the direct object has its own verb and direct object. (Q: Eat what? A: our goldfish.))
Do not forget that the noun term does not usually mean a single word. An object can be a one-word noun (eg, dog, goldfish, man), a pronoun (eg, she, it, he), a noun phrase (eg, the puppy in the window, to eat our goldfish, a man over town), or a noun clause (eg, what the dog saw, how the goldfish survived, why the man triumphed).
Examples of Indirect Objects
The indirect object is the recipient or beneficiary of the action (most of the time, it is a person). You can find the indirect object by finding the verb and direct object (see above) and then asking“for or for whom?“. In each example below, the direct object is in bold and the indirect object is shaded.
- Give a girl the right shoes, and she can conquer the world. (Actress Marilyn Monroe)
(Q: Give the right shoes to whom? A: a girl)
- Show me a hero, and I’ll write you a tragedy. (Author F. Scott Fitzgerald)
(Q: Show a hero to whom? A: me)
(Q: Write a tragedy for whom? A: you)
- Never tell people how to do things. Tell them what to do, and they will surprise you with their ingenuity. (General George Patton)
(Q: Never tell“how to do things“to whom? A: people)
(Q: Tell“what to do“to whom? To: them)
Often, the words to or to will be present, making identification easier.
- When giving jewellery as a present, I’m giving protection to someone I care about. (Actress Sofia Boutella)
Indirect objects aren’t always people. Every now and again, you might have to ask“for or to what?“as opposed to“whom?“.
- Be ashamed to die until you have won some victory for humanity. (Educational reformer Horace Mann)
Examples of Objects of Prepositions
The noun (or pronoun) governed by a preposition (ie, words like“in“,“in“,“in“,“by“,“fence“) is known as the object of a preposition. In each example below, the preposition is in bold and the object of the preposition is shaded.
- Lee lives near Brighton.
- He lives among us.
When talking about the object of a preposition, grammarians like to sharpen the focus, so the term“object of a preposition“refers to the main noun in any noun phrase. All other words in the phrase are relegated to“modifiers“. In each example below, the preposition is bold, the object of the preposition (i.e., the main noun) is also bold and shaded, and the modifiers are only shaded.
- Lee lives near a pub.
(The object of the preposition is“pub,“and“a“is a modifier.)
- He lives among his old friends.
- When I was younger, I felt like a man trapped inside a woman’s body. Then I was born. (Comedian Yianni Agisilaou)
- You can tell a lot about a fellow’s character by his way of eating jellybeans. (President Ronald Reagan)
(In this example,“his“and“of eating jellybeans“are modifiers for“way.“Of note though,“of“is a preposition with its own object of a preposition,“eating.“)
Here’s a quirk. When the object of the preposition is a noun clause, there is no main noun, so the entire clause is described as the object of the preposition.
- I saw a documentary on how ships are kept together . Riveting! (Comedian Stewart Francis)
More about Objects
Here are three more notable items related to objects:
Only transitive verbs can have a direct or indirect object.
When a verb has a direct object, it is called a transitive verb. Some verbs do not take objects. They are known as intransitive verbs.
- Malcolm fell very badly.
(Step 1: Find the verb. Verb = fell)
(Step 2: Ask“what?“. Q: Fell what? A: Nothing. You can’t fall something.)
(Therefore, there’s no direct object. The verb“to fall“is intransitive.)
Linking verbs don’t have a direct object.
Don’t confuse subject complements with direct complements. if you ask“what?“with a linking verb, you will find a subject complement, not the direct object.
- Peter is happy.
(Step 1: Find the verb. Verb = is)
(Step 2. Ask“What?“. Q: Is what? A: happy.)
(On this occasion,“happy“is not the direct object. This is because“is“(i.e., the verb“to be“) is a linking verb.)
Look at this example:
- You are a funny guy. I will kill you last.
(Here,“a funny guy“is not a direct object. It’s a subject complement following the linking verb“are“(i.e.,“to be“). The verb“will kill“(i.e.,“to kill“) is a transitive verb (so not a linking verb) and“you“is its direct object.)
Objects are in the target case.
Objects are always in the objective case. In English, this only affects pronouns (but not all pronouns).
- She saw him.
(The pronoun“him“(the direct object of“saw“) is the objective-case version of“he.“)
- Give them the money.
(The pronoun“them“(the indirect object of“give“) is the objective-case version of“they.“)
- Dance with her.
(The pronoun“her“(the object of the preposition“with“) is the objective-case version of“she.“)
Here is a list of personal pronouns with their objective case versions:
|Personal Pronoun||Objective Case Version||Comment|
|who||whom||This one causes errors.|
|whoever||whomever||This one causes errors.|
Verbals can have direct objects too.
A verbal is a word derived from a verb. Verbs function as adjectives or nouns. Verbs can be infinitives (eg,“to read“,“to think“), gerunds (eg“reading“,“thinking“) and participles (eg,“reading“,“thinking“; they look the same as gerunds).
Here is an example of an infinitive (in bold) with a direct object:
- As a kid, I was made to walk the plank. We couldn’t afford a dog. (Comedian Gary Delaney)
(“To walk“is an infinitive. Q: To walk what? A: the plank)
Here is an example of a gerund (in bold) with a direct object:
- Driving a time machine is annoying because your kids are always asking“Are we then yet?“. (Comedian Paul Taylor)
(“Driving“is a gerund. Q: Driving what? A: a time machine)
Here is an example of a participle (in bold) with a direct object:
- Watching the London Marathon, I notice one runner dressed as a chicken and another as an egg. I thought:“This could be interesting.“(Comedian Paddy Lennox)
(“Watching“is a participant Q: Watch what? To: the London Marathon)
Why Should I Care about Objects?
Yes, that’s a lot of terminology for things you do naturally, but there are three good reasons to think more carefully about objects.
(Reason 1) Don’t confuse“who“and“whom.“
“Who“is never an object, but“who“It is always. So use“who“for a subject but“who“for an object. For example:
- The paper slates whom?
(“Whom“as a direct object)
- Show whom the money?
(“Whom“as an indirect object)
- I met two rugby players, one of whom was a little too good at dancing.
(“Whom“as the object of a preposition)
It’s the same deal with“whoever“y“whoever“. Use“whoever“for the subject of a verb but“whoever“for an object.
This means that“who“y“whoever“they almost never follow a preposition. However, it can happen.
- Islam was interpreted to give the ruler absolute power, which was a convenient interpretation for whoever was the ruler. (Egyptian Vice President Mohamed ElBaradei)
(Here, even though it follows the preposition“for,““whoever“is correct. It’s the subject of the noun clause“whoever was the ruler.“)
Writers never confuse couples like“he/he“y“they“. Well they’re no different from the couple“who who“. Read more about who and whom.
(Reason 2) Use the correct verb after using an object of a preposition.
The object of a preposition cannot be the subject of a verb.
- Lee’s box of magazines are under the stairs. ❌
- Lee’s box of magazines is under the stairs. ✔️
Don’t be fooled by the proximity of the object of the preposition (here,“magazines“) to the verb. You need to make sure that the subject (here,“box“) and the verb agree in number.
However, the situation is different with some expressions (for example,“half of“,“a proportion of“). With these, the object of the preposition does influence the verb.
- Half of the cakes are missing. ✔️
(Here,“cakes“means that“half“is treated as plural.)
- Half of the cake is missing. ✔️
(Here,“cake“means that“half“is treated as singular.)
(Reason 3) Use“if“and“whether“correctly.
Writers are sometimes unsure whether to use“and“o“and“after a preposition. Uses“either“.
- It’s a moral question about whether we have the right to exterminate species. (Naturalist Sir David Attenborough)
(Put another way: Use“whether,“not“if,“to head up a noun clause that’s the object of a preposition.)
- “who is like“the“y“who“it is like“the“. Use“who“for an object. use“who“for a subject.
- Who shot whom? I shot him.
- Just because the object of your preposition is close to the verb, don’t treat it as the subject of the verb.
- A long list of issues were considered.
(This should be“was considered.“The subject is“list“not“issues.“)
- A long list of issues were considered.
- With the expressions“like half of“,“most of“y“a percentage of“, el objeto de la preposición determina el verbo.
- The majority of the cake has been eaten.
- The majority of the cakes have been eaten.