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English Grammar Basic Grammatica e sintassi

Condividi frasi in inglese.

Frasi schiuse in inglese

Questa lezione ci aiuterà a capire cos’è una frase a fessura in inglese, perché la usiamo e come possiamo formare una frase a fessura.

What is a cleft sentence?

Una frase spaccata è derivata da una frase semplice dividendola in due proposizioni: es. Giovanni ha rotto la finestra. (frase semplice) → È stato John a rompere la finestra. (spaccatura) → È stata la finestra che John ha rotto. (schisi) Esistono due tipi di frasi schisi: le frasi It-schisi. Wh- Frasi schiuse.

Una frase a fessura si concentra su una parte di una frase. Aggiunge la parte che è già nota o compresa a una parte che l’ascoltatore non conosce. Una frase schisi è un modo per aggiungere attenzione a ciò che è più importante per noi. Qui, nelle frasi schiuse, una singola idea è divisa in due parti in cui l’attenzione è posta su un elemento.

In una frase a fessura, le informazioni sono divise in due parti:

a) uno già noto agli ascoltatori e meno importante per noi
b) e l’altro che è sconosciuto o nuovo agli ascoltatori ed è ciò su cui l’oratore vuole concentrarsi

In una frase spaccata, l’informazione è formata in un modo diverso dalla sua struttura originale. La parte che è a fuoco qui viene spostata dalla sua posizione originale.

Può essere qualsiasi cosa su cui l’oratore si concentra e separa in una frase spaccata. Studiamo alcuni esempi.

Monica took 1000 dollars from a beggar last night.

Cleft sentence: It was Monica who took 1000 dollars from a beggar last night. (The focus is on the subject Monica)
Cleft sentence: It was 1000 dollars that Monica took from the beggar last night. (The focus is on the object)
Cleft sentence: It was a beggar whom Monica took 1000 dollars from last night. (The focus is on the object of the preposition)
Cleft sentence: It was last night when Monica took 1000 dollars from a beggar. (The focus is on the time of the action (adverb))

Simple sentence (non-cleft): Rahul stole my car last night.

Ora, se vogliamo concentrarci su una parte della frase, diciamo il soggetto (Rahul), dovremo usare una frase a fessura. Possiamo scrivere la frase precedente come segue:

Cleft sentence: It was Rahul who stole my car last night.

Ora, il focus è su Rahul, la frase originale. Questo è un esempio di frase a fessura. Una frase schisi è solitamente costruita nei seguenti due modi:

  • It (pseudo pronome) + essere forma di verbo + X + proposizione dipendente
  • Proposizione dipendente che inizia con parole WH + essere forma di verbo + X

Nella prima struttura, X (l’elemento su cui si concentra l’oratore) è solitamente un sostantivo o un pronome sostantivo. Può essere una frase preposizionale, avverbiale o aggettivo. Nella seconda struttura, l’elemento su cui si concentra l’oratore viene dopo una forma di essere di un verbo (verbo di collegamento).

Examples:

  • It was Jon who supported me in my tough times.
  • It was your brother Allen who came up with this idea.
  • It is Tina whom I am dating.
  • What I want from you is your support.
  • Who I really want to thank is you.
  • What I want for my birthday is a new bike.

Conversation 1:

Muskaan: I think Smriti paid for your college fee. Didn’t he?
Jon (Cleft sentence): No, it is Rahul who paid for my college fee.
Normal sentence: Rahul paid for your college fee.

Understood or common information: Somebody paid your college fee
New or focus information: Rahul did the action

La parte “la retta universitaria è pagata da qualcuno” si intende qui. L’oratore ha utilizzato una struttura divisa per concentrarsi sulla parte (persona) che l’ascoltatore non conosce.

Conversation 2:

Mom: I am elated today.
Ashu: Why, mom? What’s going on?
Mom: We are having Chinese food in the evening. It is my favorite.
Ashu: No, mom, It is Italian food that we are having in the evening. Papa confirmed that a few minutes ago.

Qui, il cibo cinese è l’oggetto del verbo ‘avere’. Ashu, nell’ultima riga, usa una struttura a fessura per mettere a fuoco l’oggetto. Se non volessi porre ulteriore enfasi sull’oggetto, la frase sarebbe scritta come: stasera mangeremo cibo italiano. Nella fessura, ha deliberatamente enfatizzato l’oggetto, che era una nuova informazione per l’ascoltatore (mamma).

Conversation 3:

Alex: Someone saved your sister from falling into a pot.
John: It was my friend Anoop who did that.

Il focus è sulla parte evidenziata (in grassetto). Il resto è compreso e tratto dall’affermazione precedente.

Conversation 4:

Maxwell: I spoke to your father yesterday.
Smith: It was my uncle (who) you spoke to.

Conversation 5:

Raj: Sneha was waiting for someone at the party.
Danish: It was you who she was waiting for at the party.

Nota: puoi finire la frase sulla parte su cui ti stai concentrando, poiché il resto è già noto.

Ex – It was you.

Types of cleft sentences

Ci sono due tipi di frasi di schisi comuni in inglese:

  1. Utilizzando lo pseudo soggetto “IT”
  2. Utilizzare le parole WH
  3. Pseudo fessura inversa
  4. Utilizzando la parola “TUTTI”

Frasi schiuse con pseudo IT db2424

Usare uno pseudo pronome ‘it’ è il modo più comune per formare una frase a fessura. Le frasi di schisi TI sono generalmente utilizzate per correggere le informazioni e concentrarsi sulle informazioni appena aggiunte.

Structure:

Normal: Subject + verb phrase + object (X) + other part (optional)
Cleft: It + to be verb + object (X) + adjective clause (that/who/whom + subject + verb phrase)

Examples:

Non-cleft: Jon supported me in my tough times.
Cleft: It was Jon who supported me in my tough times.

Non-cleft: An old farmer from Kerala created a machine that changes trash cans into running shoes.
Cleft: It was an old man from Kerala who created a machine that changes trash cans into running shoes.

Non-cleft: I am looking forward to meeting Conor the most.
Cleft: It is meeting Conor that I am looking forward to the most.

Non-cleft: I couldn’t join you because I was ill.
Cleft: It was because I was ill that I couldn’t join you.

Usare uno pseudo pronome ‘it’ è il modo più comune per formare una frase a fessura. Il fuoco della fenditura può essere il seguente nella struttura:

  • Subject
  • Object of a verb
  • Object of a preposition
  • Adverbial

1. Cleft focusing on the SUBJECT

Situation 1:

I think Smriti paid for your college fee. Didn’t he?
Normal sentence: Rahul paid for your college fee.
Cleft sentence: It is Rahul who paid for my college fee.

Understood or common information: Somebody paid for your college fee
New or focus information: Rahul did the action

La parte “la retta universitaria è pagata da qualcuno” si intende qui. L’oratore ha utilizzato una struttura divisa per concentrarsi sulla parte (persona) che l’ascoltatore non conosce.

Situation 2:

Didn’t Simran call your father last night?
Cleft: No, it was Manisha who called my father last night.

Normal sentence: Manisha called my father last night.

Situation 3:

Ashish: iPhone 11 has been awarded as the best smartphone in 2021.
Max: That’s not correct. It is the iPhone 13 that’s been awarded as the best smartphone in 2021. (cleft)

Situation 4:

Charu: IIM Indore produces the best HR managers, according to a report.
Monica: That’s amazing.
Ankit: That’s not necessarily true. It is IIM Ahmedabad that does it. (cleft)

L’ultima frase è una frase a fessura. Le informazioni nuove e su cui Ankit si concentra (X) vengono evidenziate dividendo la frase in due parti. La clausola che segue X (Ankit) si riferisce alle stesse informazioni già fornite da Charu. Quindi. ‘che fa’ qui significa ‘che produce i migliori gestori delle risorse umane’.

2. Cleft focusing on the OBJECT

proposizione relativa (soggetto) + parte del verbo essere + complemento. Quello che ho visto + era + una luce brillante.

La parte focus (X) può anche essere l’oggetto del verbo. Diamo un’occhiata ad alcuni esempi in cui le frasi schiuse vengono utilizzate per concentrarsi sull’oggetto del verbo.

Situation 1:

Mom: I am elated today.
Ashu: Why, mom? What’s going on?
Mom: We are having Chinese food in the evening. It is my favorite.
Ashu: No, mom, It is Italian food that we are having in the evening. Papa confirmed that a few minutes ago.

Qui, il cibo cinese è l’oggetto del verbo ‘avere’. Ashu, nell’ultima riga, usa una struttura a fessura per mettere a fuoco l’oggetto. Se non volessi porre ulteriore enfasi sull’oggetto, la frase sarebbe scritta come: stasera mangeremo cibo italiano. Nella fessura, ha deliberatamente enfatizzato l’oggetto, che era una nuova informazione per l’ascoltatore (mamma).

Situation 2:

Aarushi: Who are you dating, Ashish?
Ashish: No one.
Aarushi: Hey, come on. I know you are dating someone. Please tell.
Ashish: It is Megha who I am dating. Please don’t share this with anyone.

Aarushi, qui, vuole concentrarsi in modo specifico sull’oggetto (persona) del verbo ‘dating’. E poiché voglio concentrarmi sul nome, è stato utilizzato il rientro. Nota anche che quando l’oggetto di un verbo è una persona, chi/chi/che può essere usato per riferirsi a quella persona.

It is Megha whom I am dating.
It is Megha who I am dating.
It is Megha that I am dating.

3. Cleft focusing on the OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION

Situation 1:

A: You looked upset at the party. Were you still upset with us?
B: I wasn’t upset with you all. It was my brother Alex whom I was upset with.

Situation 2:

Tom: You think about Mary anymore. She doesn’t deserve it.
Sam: I am not. It’s her sister (whom) I’m thinking about right now. She got wronged in this.

Situation 3:

Laura: Rahul will be performing with my sister Naura at the party. They look great together.
Jon: It is Maria who he will be performing with. He told me this himself.

4. Fessura focalizzata su un AVVERBIO

Un avverbiale può essere il fulcro di una frase schisi. Diamo un’occhiata ad alcuni esempi.

Examples:

Non-cleft: He came to see us the day before yesterday.
Cleft: It was the day before yesterday when he came to see us.

Non-cleft: I will call you tomorrow.
Cleft: It is tomorrow when I will call you.

Non-cleft: They are buying a house in London.
Cleft: It is In London that they are buying a house.
or
Cleft: It is London where they are buying a house.

Se l’avverbiale (tempo) è una frase nominale, usiamo la congiunzione ‘quando’ dopo di essa. Ma se è una frase preposizionale, usa la congiunzione “che” dopo di essa.

NOTE: The verb (to be) of the pseudo subject (IT) needs to be singular even if the focus point (X) is plural.

Examples:

  • Sono i i miei amici che mi motivano a perseguire il mio sogno.
  • Sono stati i tuoi colleghi a salvarti dal licenziamento.

WH frasi spaccate (pseudo schisi)

Queste sono frasi a fessura che iniziano con parole della famiglia WH, di solito la parola “COSA”. Queste frasi di solito rispondono a una domanda. Nota che queste frasi di schisi di solito iniziano con la congiunzione ‘cosa’.

Structure: WH clause (known information) + to be verb + X (focus part)

Examples:

Question: What do you want from me?
Cleft: What I want is your support.
Non-cleft: I want your support.

Non-cleft: We want to get a job right now.
Cleft: What we want right now is to get a job.

Non-cleft: I needed a safe house to stay.
Cleft: What I needed was a safe house to stay.

Non-cleft: I loved the food the most at the party.
Cleft: What I loved the most at the party was the food.

Non-cleft: He wrote his resignation letter and threw it at his employer’s face.
Cleft: What happened was that he wrote his resignation letter and threw it at his employer’s face.

More examples:

  • What I want right now is a person who I can trust.
  • What she really wants is your money.
  • What I am saying is that I can’t work with anymore.
  • What I said to him was that you don’t deserve this job.

Other WH cleft sentences

Non-cleft: Sam used to live in a deserted village.
Cleft: Where Sam used to live was a deserted village.

Non-cleft: I reached home at 2 am.
Cleft: When I reached home was 2 am.

Non-cleft: We do this job because we love it.
Cleft: Why we do this job is because we love it.

Non-cleft: We want to hire your brother.
Cleft: Who we want to hire is your brother.

Pseudo frasi al contrario

Nelle frasi pseudo-crack inverse, il focus è posto all’inizio, a differenza delle altre frasi crack.

Structure: X (focus point) + to be verb + WH clause

Cleft: What I gifted him was a racing car.
Reverse cleft: A racing car is what I gifted him.

Cleft: We need your support.
Reverse cleft: Your support is what we need.

Cleft: What I have been looking for is a tech guy.
Reverse cleft: A tech guy is what I have been looking for.

Cleft: What he is asking for the project is 2 crores.
Reverse cleft: 2 crores is what he is asking for.

Qui, la proposizione che segue il verbo principale (essere) è una proposizione nominale. Funziona come complemento all’argomento.

Frasi schiuse usando la parola TUTTO

Qui, la congiunzione ciò che viene sostituito da tutto. Una frase spaccata che inizia con tutto rende la frase più enfatica.

Examples:

Non-cleft: I just want skilled people to make this a successful product.
Cleft: All I want to make this a successful product is skilled people.

Non-cleft: We just want your support right now.
Cleft: All we want right now is your support.

Non-cleft: We just need love in life.
Cleft: All we need in life is love.

Non-cleft: I am thinking about your family.
Cleft: All I am thinking about is your family.

NOTA: qui, la parola ‘solo’ è usata implicitamente in ‘tutte le frasi spaccate’, e la parola ‘tutto’ può essere sostituita con la frase ‘l’unica cosa’. L’uso di questa frase rende la frase più enfatica. Ecco alcuni esempi:

Examples:

All we were looking for was your performance.
The only thing we were waiting for was your performance.

All they gave me in exchange for the phone was a cheap camera.
The only they gave me in exchange for the phone was a cheap camera.

All I am asking for is your time.
The only thing I am asking is your time.

All I did was give her my laptop, and she started crying.
The only thing I did was give her my laptop, and she started crying.

All I did was look at her, and they threw me out of the class.
The only thing I did was look at her, and they threw me out of the class.

In questa frase ci concentriamo sul verbo. La frase significa che non hanno fatto molto. Qui, la struttura a fessura viene utilizzata per concentrarsi sul fatto che il verbo non ha avuto un ruolo importante nel risultato.

Set di esercizi!

SET 1
Cambia queste frasi normali in “se frasi” concentrandoti sull’argomento.

  • Jon brought that gift for me.
  • Your father is leading this case.
  • My book is considered one of the best books for learning English.

Answers:

  • It was Jon who brought that gift for me.
  • It is your father who is leading this case.
  • It is my book that is considered one of the best books for learning English.

SET 2
Cambie estas oraciones normales a ‘si oraciones’ enfocándose en el objeto directo.

  1. I need your laptop right now.
  2. They called my sister Anna for the role.
  3. She betrayed me, not you.

Answers:

  1. It is your laptop I need right now.
  2. It was my sister Anna who they called for the role.
  3. It was her who she betrayed, not you.

SET 3
Cambie estas oraciones normales a ‘si oraciones’ centrándose en un adverbial.

  1. They called me a few minutes ago to show up.
  2. She ran away with all the money last night.
  3. They hid the bag in their apartment.

Answers:

  1. It was a few minutes ago when they called me to show up.
  2. It was last when she ran away with all the money.
  3. It was in their apartment that they hid the bag.

SET 4

Cambia queste frasi normali in “frasi di schisi WH” concentrandoti sull’oggetto diretto.

  1. I need your laptop right now.
  2. They called my sister Anna for the role.
  3. I just had a small apple in the morning.
  4. Jonas gave me a diamong watch.

Answers:

  1. What I need right now is your laptop.
  2. Who they called for the role was my sister Anna.
  3. What I had in the morning was a small apple.
  4. What Jonas gave me in the morning was a diamong watch.

SET 5

Cambia queste frasi normali in “frasi spaccate al contrario” concentrandoti sull’oggetto diretto.

  1. I need your laptop right now.
  2. They called my sister Anna for the role.
  3. I just had a small apple in the morning.
  4. Jonas gave me a diamong watch.

Answers:

  1. Your laptop is what I need right now.
  2. My sister was who they called for the role.
  3. A small apple was what I had in the morning.
  4. A diamond watch was what Jonas gave me.

SET 6

Cambia queste frasi normali in “TUTTE le frasi schiuse” concentrandoti sull’oggetto diretto.

  1. I need your laptop right now.
  2. I just had a small apple in the morning.
  3. Jonas gave me a diamond watch.

Answers:

  1. All I need right now is your laptop.
  2. All I had in the morning was a small apple.
  3. All Jonas gave me in the morning was a diamond watch.

FAQs

What is a cleft sentence in grammar?

Una frase schisi è un meccanismo per concentrarsi su un elemento specifico della frase. L’elemento su cui ci concentriamo in una struttura di scissione sono le informazioni che sono nuove per l’ascoltatore e spesso le costruiamo per rendere la frase più enfatica. Il tipo più comune di frase a fessura è una frase a fessura IT.

Here is the structure: It + to be verb + focus information + relative clause

Examples:

Non-cleft: Your own brother stole your car.
Cleft: It was your own brother who stole your car.

Other cleft sentences

Non-cleft: We wanted your support.
Cleft: All we wanted was your support.

Non-cleft: I want a house to live in.
Cleft: What I want is a house to live in.

What is an example of a cleft sentence?
Non-cleft: The company is looking for some good coders.
Cleft: It is some good coders the company is looking for.

Non-cleft: The company is looking for some good coders.
Cleft: What the company is looking for is some good coders.

Non-cleft: The company is looking for some good coders.
Cleft: All the company is looking for is some good coders.

Cos’è la sintassi fenditura?
In linguistica, una fessura è una costruzione in cui lo scrittore/parlante si concentra su una parte di una frase dividendola in due parti: una già nota e l’altra che è nuova (cosa su cui si concentra l’oratore per fare). la frase enfatica). ).

Non-cleft: She wants your money.
Cleft: What she wants is your money.

How do you write a cleft sentence?
There are a few ways to write a cleft construction in English. The most common one is an IT CLEFT STRUCTURE:
IT (pseudo subject) + to be form of a verb + X (the focus part) + relative clause. The focus part (X) is usually a noun/noun phrase, but it can be an adverbial either.

Examples:

  1. It is you who should be blamed for this loss.
  2. It was a beggar who won the lottery.
  3. It was after the match that they came to see us.

What are the types of cleft sentences?
Estos son los tipos más comunes de oraciones hendidas en inglés:

  1. IT CLEFT sentence
  2. WHAT cleft sentence
  3. REVERSE cleft sentence
  4. ALL cleft sentence

Non-cleft: She wants your money.

  1. It is your money that she wants.
  2. What she wants is your money.
  3. Your money is what she wants.
  4. All she wants is your money.

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