English Grammar Basic 文法と構文

過去完了形 (能動態と受動態)

過去完了形 (能動態と受動態)


Active and passive voice in the Past perfect tense




Structure: Subject + had + past participle (V3) + object

  • Subject = the doer of the action
  • Object = the receiver of the action


  • 彼女は締め切り前にそのプロジェクトを終わらせた
  • 彼らはその仕事をやめた


When to use the passive voice in the Past perfect tense?



そして、主語から動詞の目的語に焦点を移すため、目的語が主語になり、主語 (実行者) は文の中で無関係または重要度の低い実体になります。

Structure: Object + had been + past participle (V3) + by + subject (doer)


  • The project had been completed by her before the deadline.
  • The job had been quit by them.

Active and passive voice of Past perfect tense

Active voice: Subject had V3 object
Passive voice: object had + been V3 (by + subject)


  • アクティブ: お金を支払いました。
  • パッシブ: お金は (私から) 支払われました。


Changing active voice into passive voice in the Past Perfect tense

Active: We had trained them well.
Passive: They had been trained well (by us).

Active: Some people had followed her to her office.
Passive: She had been followed to her office (by some people).

Active: The teacher had thrown us out of the class.
Passive: We had been thrown out of the class (by the teacher).

Active: They had copied all my answers.
Passive: All my answers had been copied (by them).

Active: Someone had stolen my car before I reached home.
Passive: My car had been stolen (by someone) before I reached home.

Active: The police had arrested him.
Passive: He had been arrested (by the police).

Active: His parents had warmed him before he did the crime.
Passive: He had been warned (by his parents) before he did the crime.

Active: She had saved my family from those people.
Passive: My family had been saved from those people (by her).

Negative sentences (Active and voice voice)

Active and passive voice of Past perfect tense (negative sentences)

Active voice: Subject had not V3 object
Passive voice: Object had + been not V3 by + subject (optional)

Active: He had not invited me for the party.
Passive: I had not been invited for the party (by him).

Active: Sam hadn’t helped us at all.
Passive: We hadn’t been helped at all (by Sam).

Active: We had not recorded the video.
Passive: The video had not been recorded (by us).

Active: She hadn’t bought anything at the store.
Passive: Nothing had been bought at the store (by her).

注: ‘anything’ が否定文の能動態動詞の目的語である場合、受動態では ‘nothing’ に変わります。

Interrogative sentences (Active and voice voice)

Active and passive voice of Past perfect tense (interrogative sentences)

Active voice: Question words (if any) had subject V3 object?
Passive voice: Question words had object been + V3 (by + subject)?


Active: Had you called me?
Passive: Had I been called by you?

Active: Had he not helped you in your assignment?
Passive: Had you not been helped in your assignment by him?

Active: Had they contacted you for the class?
Passive: Had you been contacted for the class by them?

Active: Where had she invested the money?
Passive: Where had the money been invested by her?

Active: Why had you sold the car?
Passive: Why had the car been sold by you?

Active: What had you taken before lunch?
Passive: What had been taken before lunch by you?


  1. Nobody had helped me in my tough times.
  2. My friends had supported my family.
  3. Some people had attacked his wife.
  4. Where had he taken the money from?
  5. Had they called her?
  6. How had you done that?
  7. Everyone had mocked me for my pronunciation.
  8. They hadn’t released the movie before the end.
  9. Somebody had deposited a lot of money into my account.
  10. I had not caught the train.


  1. I had not been helped in my tough times by anyone.
  2. My family had been supported by my friends.
  3. His wife had been attacked by some people.
  4. Where had the money been taken from by him?
  5. Had she been called by them?
  6. How had that been done by you?
  7. I had been mocked for my pronunciation by everyone.
  8. The movie hadn’t been released before the end.
  9. A lot of money had been deposited into my account by someone.
  10. The train had not been caught by me.