- 1 過去完了形 (能動態と受動態)
- 2 Active and passive voice in the Past perfect tense
- 3 過去完了時制の能動態をいつ使うべきですか?
- 4 When to use the passive voice in the Past perfect tense?
- 5 Changing active voice into passive voice in the Past Perfect tense
- 6 Negative sentences (Active and voice voice)
- 7 Interrogative sentences (Active and voice voice)
- 8 Practice!
Active and passive voice in the Past perfect tense
Structure: Subject + had + past participle (V3) + object
- Subject = the doer of the action
- Object = the receiver of the action
When to use the passive voice in the Past perfect tense?
そして、主語から動詞の目的語に焦点を移すため、目的語が主語になり、主語 (実行者) は文の中で無関係または重要度の低い実体になります。
Structure: Object + had been + past participle (V3) + by + subject (doer)
- The project had been completed by her before the deadline.
- The job had been quit by them.
Active and passive voice of Past perfect tense
|Passive voice:||object||had + been||V3||(by + subject)|
- アクティブ: お金を支払いました。
- パッシブ: お金は (私から) 支払われました。
Changing active voice into passive voice in the Past Perfect tense
Active: We had trained them well.
Passive: They had been trained well (by us).
Active: Some people had followed her to her office.
Passive: She had been followed to her office (by some people).
Active: The teacher had thrown us out of the class.
Passive: We had been thrown out of the class (by the teacher).
Active: They had copied all my answers.
Passive: All my answers had been copied (by them).
Active: Someone had stolen my car before I reached home.
Passive: My car had been stolen (by someone) before I reached home.
Active: The police had arrested him.
Passive: He had been arrested (by the police).
Active: His parents had warmed him before he did the crime.
Passive: He had been warned (by his parents) before he did the crime.
Active: She had saved my family from those people.
Passive: My family had been saved from those people (by her).
Negative sentences (Active and voice voice)
Active and passive voice of Past perfect tense (negative sentences)
|Passive voice:||Object||had + been||not||V3||by + subject (optional)|
Active: He had not invited me for the party.
Passive: I had not been invited for the party (by him).
Active: Sam hadn’t helped us at all.
Passive: We hadn’t been helped at all (by Sam).
Active: We had not recorded the video.
Passive: The video had not been recorded (by us).
Active: She hadn’t bought anything at the store.
Passive: Nothing had been bought at the store (by her).
注: ‘anything’ が否定文の能動態動詞の目的語である場合、受動態では ‘nothing’ に変わります。
Interrogative sentences (Active and voice voice)
Active and passive voice of Past perfect tense (interrogative sentences)
|Active voice:||Question words (if any)||had||subject||V3||object?|
|Passive voice:||Question words||had||object||been + V3||(by + subject)?|
Active: Had you called me?
Passive: Had I been called by you?
Active: Had he not helped you in your assignment?
Passive: Had you not been helped in your assignment by him?
Active: Had they contacted you for the class?
Passive: Had you been contacted for the class by them?
Active: Where had she invested the money?
Passive: Where had the money been invested by her?
Active: Why had you sold the car?
Passive: Why had the car been sold by you?
Active: What had you taken before lunch?
Passive: What had been taken before lunch by you?
- Nobody had helped me in my tough times.
- My friends had supported my family.
- Some people had attacked his wife.
- Where had he taken the money from?
- Had they called her?
- How had you done that?
- Everyone had mocked me for my pronunciation.
- They hadn’t released the movie before the end.
- Somebody had deposited a lot of money into my account.
- I had not caught the train.
- I had not been helped in my tough times by anyone.
- My family had been supported by my friends.
- His wife had been attacked by some people.
- Where had the money been taken from by him?
- Had she been called by them?
- How had that been done by you?
- I had been mocked for my pronunciation by everyone.
- The movie hadn’t been released before the end.
- A lot of money had been deposited into my account by someone.
- The train had not been caught by me.